Predicative Participles With Verbs In The Aorist. -- By: William G. Ballantine

Journal: Bibliotheca Sacra
Volume: BSAC 041:164 (Oct 1884)
Article: Predicative Participles With Verbs In The Aorist.
Author: William G. Ballantine


Predicative Participles With Verbs In The Aorist.1

Prof. WM. G. Ballantine

Having been unable to find in any one of the New Testament or classic Greek grammars, or in any commentary, a concise and comprehensive statement and adequate illustration of the principles which guide Greek writers in the use of predicative participles when the leading verb is in the aorist, we offer here the results of a somewhat protracted and painstaking original investigation: 2

Rule 1. When a writer wishes to assert by a participle, in addition to the leading action, another action synchronous with it, he always uses a present participle; e.g. John 9:7, “and came seeing (ἦλθε βλέπων)”; Mark 2:14, “and as he passed by (παράγων), he saw (εἶδε) Levi the son of Alphaeus.”

Rule 2. When a writer wishes to assert by a participle, in addition to the leading action, another action which, by even the shortest interval, preceded it, he always uses the aorist participle; e.g. Matt. 8:3, “And he stretched forth (ἐκτείνας) his hand, and touched (ἥψατο) him”; Matt. 22:25, “and the first married and deceased (γαμήσας ἐτελεύτησε).”

It is needless to multiply illustrations of these idioms, as they abound on every page of the New Testament, and are undisputed.

Rule 3. But very frequently a writer wishes to make by

a participle an additional assertion, not of a contemporaneous or precedent act, but of the same act; having asserted the effect or nature of the action he wishes to add its outward form, or the converse. In every such case the aorist participle is used; e.g. Matt. 4:4, “but he answered and said (ἀποκριθεὶς)” Christ did not “say while answering, nor after answering; in saying he answered. There were not two acts, but one.

In our own reading, as well as in a careful study of the numerous examples brought together in the grammars from the whole range of Attic literature, we have found very few, even apparent, exceptions to these three r...

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