The Vocabulary Of The “Teaching Of The Twelve Apostles.” -- By: Lemuel S. Potwin

Journal: Bibliotheca Sacra
Volume: BSAC 041:164 (Oct 1884)
Article: The Vocabulary Of The “Teaching Of The Twelve Apostles.”
Author: Lemuel S. Potwin


The Vocabulary Of The “Teaching Of The Twelve Apostles.”

Prof. Lemuel S. Potwin

I. Its Vocabulary Compared With That Of The New Testament.1

The agreement between the New Testament and the Teaching in the use of words is in general so obvious and so much a matter of course that it is only necessary to notice the points of disagreement. Are there any words in the Teaching not found in the New Testament? Also, are there words in the former with a meaning different from that which they bear in the latter? The following notes are in answer to the first of these questions. The second question seems to allow an almost unqualified negative. The word φθορά, which has in the New Testament its classical meaning of corruption, destruction (e.g. ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς, Rom. 8:21), in the Teaching (chap, 2.), means abortion, as in the Epistle of Barnabas. Also συνοχή (chap, 1.), is to be taken more literally than in the New Testament.

In the following list I have intended to include all the words in the Teaching that are not found in the New Testament, however unimportant they may seem, or however close the connection or resemblance. The numbers following each word give the chapter and the line in Scribner’s edition. In the remarks in regard to usage no notice is taken of the Epistle of Barnabas, the Apostolical Constitutions, or the Epitome, if the word is used elsewhere.

ἀθάντος, 4:94. Classical, and in Septuagint. The New Testament adjective is ἄφθαρτος (1 Tim. 1:17), which is perhaps not used earlier than Aristotle. It also has both the substantives ἀφθαρσία (post-classical and in Septuagint) and ἀθανασία, which is classical.

αἰσχρολόγος, 3:56. Post-classical. The New Testament has αἰσχρολογία (classical) in Col. 3:8, and αἰσχρότης (classical), referring to the same thing, in Eph. 5:4.

ἀμφιβολία, 14:270. Classical. In Herodotus 5. 74 it means an attack from both sides — Peloponnesians on one side and Boeotians and Chalcidians on the other. In Aristotle’s Poetic (25. 13)...

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