Angels Of The Churches In Revelation 1–3:“ Status” “Quaestionis” And Another Proposal -- By: Everett Ferguson
BBR 21:3 (2011) p. 371
Angels Of The Churches In Revelation 1–3:“
Status” “Quaestionis” And Another Proposal
Abilene Christian University
This article surveys the interpretations of “the angel of the church” in each of the seven letters in Rev 2–3, the advocates of each position, and the principal arguments for and against each view. These interpretations are guardian angel, heavenly counterpart, prevailing spirit of the church, bishop/pastor, prophet, messenger to or from John. Another possibility is that the angel is the reader of the communication to the church.
Key Words: Revelation, angels, guardian angel, heavenly counterpart, bishop, messenger, prophet, reader
The seven stars are the angels [ἄγγελοι]
of the seven churches, and the seven
lampstands are the seven churches.
No conclusive determination has been reached on the interpretation of the angels of the churches to which each of the seven letters in Rev 2–3 is addressed (2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). This does not result from lack of attention to the book of Revelation.1 David Aune offers a helpful classification of the major categories of interpretation:2
1. Supernatural beings
a. Guardian angels of each congregation
b. Personified heavenly counterparts of earthly Christian communities
c. Visionary counterparts of community prophets
BBR 21:3 (2011) p. 372
2. Human beings
a. Human messengers or emissaries
c. Bishops or community leaders with title unspecified
3. Heavenly bodies
My survey will modify the order of these interpretations and offer some refinements.
Aune’s last category has been the least popular.3 This interpretation has in its favor the explicit statement identifying stars and angels (You must have a subscription and be logged in to read the entire article.
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